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Unix systems put various sensible limits on the use of different resources. Open files, number of processes, locked files, cpu usage, etc can be limited.


shows the current limits set for a running process. These limits are set based on a number of possible configuration locations.


Utility for setting limits at a user-level for system-wide resource usage, which is useful for shared systems. These are limits for the sum of all processes owned by a user.


Part of linux's pam_limits, the persistent ulimits configuration file. Sets for logged in users, not for system processes

pam_limits are enforced when a session is opened. They do not affect daemon processes


Contains system-wide configurations, kernel-level configurations

source for file descriptors limit