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Gas Laws

Dalton's Law

Kinetic Theory of Gases

Liquids and Solutions

Henry's Law

Ideal solutions are ones where solvent and solute do not interact with each other

Henry's law applies to gas-liquid solutions

Ideal Solutions and Raoult's Law

Relates partial pressure of a gas to its vapour pressure in liquid/liquid and liquid/solid solutions: Pi = xi•Pvap,i

Vapour-pressure lowering

Boiling Point Elevation

Normal boiling point of a pure liquid is the temp at which Pvap = 1atm

Freezing Point Depression

delta Tf = -i•Kf•m, Kf depends only on solvent type

Chemical Equilibrium

Dissociation to ions (including oxidation and reduction)

Common Ion Effect

If NaCl dissociates in AgCl solution, then theres extra [Cl-]; Q = [Ag+][Cl-] > Ksp. So the extra [Cl-] ions precipitate to restore [Ag+][Cl-] to equilibrium Ksp.

Reaction Quotient


Oxidation state is related to the number of electrons that an atom gains or loses when combining with outher atoms

Galvanic Cell

Oxidation occurs at the anode, electrons flow from the anode, it shows negative charge

Faraday's Law says the mass of a given substance produced or consumed at an electrode is proportional to the quantity of electric charge passed through the cell

Cell Potential

Chemical Kinetics

Describe how fast a reaction takes place

Integrated Rate Law

Concentration is represented by linear functions f([A]) = -kt + [A0], with the following:

Activation Energy

k = A * e^(-Ea/RT), where A and Ea are constants that depend on the reaction type

Useful Examples