IP address

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Numeric label assigned to each device participating in a network

Reginal Internet Registry


32 bit integers, 4, period delimited 8 bit integers


Network Address Translation, is a method of remapping one IP address space into another by modifying network address information. IPv4 doesn't support enough addresses for the world. IPv6 was years away from implementation when IPv4 address exhaustion was coming. NAT helped slow this problem, by allowing a single router to act as an agent between the public network (internet) and a local private network for entire groups of computers.

Default Gateway

Is the node that is assumed to know how to forward packets on to other networks

Dynamic NAT

For complex networks. DNAT doesn't make the mapping to the public IP address static, usually uses groups of available public IP addresses.

NAT loopback is a feature in many consumer routers: permits the access of a service via the public IP address from inside the local network.

IP address assignment

IP Modification

Firewalls perform IP blocking, based on IP addresses of client computers.


hostname that means this computer


Dynamic Host Configuration Protocol dynamically distributed network configurations like IP addresses, controlled by DHCP server