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Git is a version control system.


Git has local and remote repositories, branches, staging, commits (HEAD).


Git Ignore

.gitignore uses glob patterns to describe patterns in filenames. # denotes comments.

Repository History

git log shows the commit history, reverse chronological order. --stat shows abbreviated stats for each commit. --pretty and --oneline can be used to reformat git log. --pretty=format:"%h - %an, %ar : %s" prints a string for each commit:

ca82a6d - Scott Chacon, 6 years ago : changed the version number
085bb3b - Scott Chacon, 6 years ago : removed unnecessary test
a11bef0 - Scott Chacon, 6 years ago : first commit

More options:

$ git log --pretty=format:"%h %s" --graph
* 2d3acf9 ignore errors from SIGCHLD on trap
*  5e3ee11 Merge branch 'master' of git://
| * 420eac9 Added a method for getting the current branch.
* | 30e367c timeout code and tests
* | 5a09431 add timeout protection to grit
* | e1193f8 support for heads with slashes in them
* d6016bc require time for xmlschema
*  11d191e Merge branch 'defunkt' into local

Undoing Changes

Interesting link for help.

git commit --amend will add changes to the previous commit (second, new commit overwrites first).

git reset HEAD <filename> unstages a file.

git reset HEAD~1 unstages last commit.

git reset --hard HEAD~1 removes commit along with all changes, removes it from history too.

Git Remote

Manages remote connections, for pushing and pulling code changes between your local repository and a central repository hosted on sites like GitHub and BitBucket.

$ git remote add origin
# Set a new remote named origin (origin is also the default name for remote connection after being cloned)

$ git remote -v
# Verify new  and existing remotes
origin (fetch)
origin (push)

$ git remote show origin
# displays branches

Git Branching

Basic Merge Conflict

Git doesn't automatically create new commit, it pauses the process. git mergetool or git opendiff

Remote Branches

Remote references are pointers to remote repositories, including branches. git ls-remote <remote> shows all remote references. Remote-tracking branches are references to the state of remote branches, of the form (remote)/(branch).

When pushing a local branch, it needs to be pushed to a remote that you have access to. git push origin serverfix pushing the local serverfix branch to the remote serverfix branch.

Checking out a local branch from a remote-tracking branch automatically creates a "tracking branch" which follows an "upstream branch". git pull from a tracking branch with fetch from the upstream remote branch. git clone automatically sets up master as a tracking branch that tracks origin/master.

git checkout --track origin/serverfix will create a local tracking branch called serverfix, that tracks origin/serverfix as its upstream.

git branch -u origin/serverfix sets the current branch's upstream.


merge and rebase integrate changes from one branch to another. Rebasing is "rewinding" a branch, and "replaying" each commit one by one in the master branch, starting with their common ancestor:

$ git checkout experiment
$ git rebase master
First, rewinding head to replay your work on top of it...
Applying: added staged command
# Now do a fast-forward merge
$ git checkout master
$ git merge experiment

Makes a cleaner history, especially for open source projects which you don't maintain.

rebase a PR

GitHub Config

On a somewhat unrelated note, here is GitHub configurations:

git config --global core.editor "your editor"
git config --global color.ui true
git config --global "YOUR NAME"
git config --global ""
ssh-keygen -t rsa -C ""

Input your account values. Then go to github ssh and click new SSH key.

Copy the output of cat ~/.ssh/ and paste on GitHub.


Subprojects -- source

Git Objects

Git is a content-addressable filesystem. Built with a key-value store.

Git Server Protocols

Local protocol is basic, uses another directory on disk as the remote


A commit review tool built on git, with workflows analogous to pull-request style with github